Railroad networks in the U.S. promoted the growth of industries like coal and steel and sped up the transportation of goods to market thus encouraging mass production, mass consumption and economic specialization. While the first phase of the industrial revolution, which took place between 1750 and 1850, began in England and then spread to Continental Europe and North America, the second phase of the industrial revolution, which took place between 1850 and 1914, began in America and then spread to Europe. Engleman, Ryan. The War of 1812 led to a British blockade of the United States eastern coastline, which brought shipping and fishing to a halt. To learn more about the industrial revolution, check out this article on the best books about the industrial revolution. Visit this site's About page to find out more about Rebecca. Prior to the 19th century, most Americans who were not employed in agriculture performed a skilled trade. In the early 1800s, the Northeast started to develop strong regional economies. Textile mill working all night in New Bedford, Massachusetts, photo by Jack Delano, circa 1941. The beginning of industrialization in the United States is usually pegged to the opening of a textile mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in 1793 by the recent English immigrant Samuel Slater. in journalism. “The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914.” U.S. History Scene, ushistoryscene.com/article/second-industrial-revolution/ As a result, midwestern industries of coal, iron, food processing, lumber, furniture and glass increased sharply while Northeaster industries like clocks, textiles, and shoes grew to a global scale. The use of child labor also led to new labor laws, such as the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act. Poor working conditions and low wages led to the growth of labor unions. Rees, Jonathan. Bessemer process, invented by Henry Bessemer in 1856 Morris, Charles R. The Dawn of Innovation: The First American Industrial Revolution. In the second half of the 19th century, new inventions brought about even more industrialization. As Charles R. Morris states in his book The Dawn of Innovation: “The story of American development can be charted as an evolution from local to regional and finally to national networks.”. This is a very well written and helpful article! Railroad work also attracted a large number of immigrant workers to the United States which provide an abundant labor supply for growing businesses. Business owners had full control of their companies without government interference. The act was the result of the Napoleonic Wars between France and England and was intended to cut both England and France off from the American market. Rebecca is a freelance journalist and history lover who got her start in journalism working for small-town newspapers in Massachusetts and New Hampshire after she graduated from the University of New Hampshire with a B.A. Boston and New York controlled much of the shipping, insurance, and brokerage earnings from the cotton trade, while the earnings left over went for midwestern food, tools, and engines, shipped down the Mississippi and its branches.”. The American industrial revolution began in New England. Due to all of this Northern and Midwestern industrialization, the South became a supplier of the raw materials necessary for industrialization, instead of developing its own industries, according to Morris: “The South, in the meantime, slipped into the position of an internal colony, exploiting its slaves and being exploited in turn by the Northeast and Midwest. These labor unions came about because workers had little political support due to the fact that many of them were immigrants and women who were not allowed to vote. industrial revolution occurred in a number of places, Massachusetts’s role in the industrial revolution, best books about the industrial revolution, View all posts by Rebecca Beatrice Brooks, Of Plymouth Plantation by William Bradford.