Azar’s (1990, p. 93) protracted social conflict theory simply refers to "…prolonged and often violent struggles by communal groups for such basic needs as security, recognition, acceptance, fair access to political institutions and economic participation". Findings suggest that political opportunity structures may operate in different ways for challenges rooted in class as opposed to ethnic inequalities. Unlike the human needs theory, the relative deprivation theory looks at the needs of two individuals or groups relative to each other. The economic conflict theory has been criticized for its tendency for reducing all causes of conflict to econo mic reasons and other related variables. Hence, the violent natures of the Nigerian state and her, that peace and security are the major ingredients that develop, pinpoint are reduced in the country, development will continued to elude, Types of conflicts in Nigeria that can be explained with the po, Hence, this theory is a veritable source of anal, economic justice in a rental pseudo-capitalistic state like Ni, combat actors of conflicts that are caused by economic, of education that will make the average citizen patriotic, more attention to the protection of the basic hu, Continuous infrastructural development of the country. All these needs these scholars identify are universal needs of humans which they seek in order to fulfill and are integral part of human existence (Faleti, 2006). 1 (Summer 1992), pp. 3. According to Azar (1990), there are four clusters of variables that are preconditions for protracted social conflict - the communal content, deprivation of needs, the role of the state and international linkages (dimension). University of Peace. We investigate the causes of civil war, using a new data set of wars during 1960-99. Foreign council relations (2007). Rebellion may be explained by atypically severe grievances, such as high inequality, a lack of political rights, or ethnic and religious divisions in society. The article uses the traditional contexts of Ogu and Yoruba of West Africa but draws examples mostly from Yoruba proverbs to present their epistemological significance in traditional African education. Africa in general and in Nigeria in particular. What do we know about Natural Resources and Civil War? Needs are inherent and fundamental to human survival and development, and have to be met or else, it results into violence (Burton, 1990). The TSJC considers that the default of this designation goes against the law, in front of the appellants, that assimilate the case to a statutory, The 1813 Battle of Leipzig inspired a century of conflicting commemorations, culminating in the unveiling of a massive monument in 1913. 3 (September 1994), pp. Results show that Africa has had a similar incidence of civil conflict to other developing regions, and, with minor exceptions, its conflicts are consistent with the global pattern of behavior. In. 98 (Spring 1995), pp. All rights reserved. Proper needs satisfaction remains important for resolving protracted social conflicts (Coleman, 2000). A frequent aspect is "ethnic cleansing": efforts by members of one ethnic group to eliminate the population of another from a certain area by means such as discrimination, expropriation, terror, expulsion, and massacre. Max-Neef (1991) and Burton (1991) agree that needs may be peculiar to individuals, cultures or groups and humans all have the same basic needs which they seek. All rights reserv, Major theories of conflict that have been used to, Religious conflagrations such as Boko Haram, Armed robberies, especially cross borders smuggling operations, Abdul, K. I. Both groups compare that need relative to each other and this makes the resolution of the conflict somewhat difficult. It is not possible to negotiate a settlement to a conflict that requires one of the parties to compromise a basic need (UN DESA, 2001, p. 16). Greed and grievance in civil war. The last condition for PSC is the role of international linkage. The State in Africa: Issues and Pe, Marx, K. (1850). Ethnic Politics in Nigeria. infrastructure to prevent more conflict from erupting continuously. These satisfiers can be compromised but the needs themselves cannot. I, Charles, W. and Johan, G. (2007) Handbook of peace and conflicts, Collier, P. (2000). Ibadan, Nigeria: spec. In terms of financial resourcesCapitalCapital is anything that increases one’s ability to generate value. 89 (Winter 1992-93), pp. They believe that the contest for the control of economic assets, resources and systems are the basic causes of conflicts in human society. African indigenous proverbs and the institutional a, Dougherty, J. E., Pfaltzgraff, R. L and Robert, L (1981). It is not only the deprivation of needs for identity, recognition, security, the right to belong and power that will result in conflict. ), Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, Vol. 44-75. Nicosia 1065 Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Revision and "Rebirth": Commemoration of the Battle of Nations in Leipzig. Thus, the theory over-emphasizes the deprivation of human needs as the sole factor for explaining social conflict to the detriment of other factors. The author's thanks are owed to many people. Ross, M. (2004). All human needs are equal and uncompromising. World Bank, Collier, P., & Hoefflier, A. Many theories of conflict exist in explaining the nature of conflict in society. This theory is a corollary to the human needs theory of conflict, and mainly sees conflict as arising from the denial (deprivation) of the satisfaction of human needs. The needs of both ethnic groups remain very fundamental, uncompromising and non-negotiable. We then apply the model to data on Hindu-Muslim violence in India. Gerald B. Helman and Steven R. Ratner, "Saving Failed States," Foreign Policy, No. Africa: Selected Essays. 72, No. We show that if group incomes are low, increasing group incomes raises violence against that group and lowers violence generated by it. An ethnic group (or nation) is commonly defined as a body of individuals who purportedly share cultural or racial characteristics, especially common ancestry or territorial origin, which distinguish them from members of other groups. "Let no one think there is an easy or a simple solution to this tragedy," which results from "age-old animosities," said George Bush, "whatever pressure and means the international community brings to bear."
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