Does mind wandering reflect executive function or executive failure? Mind wandering in Chinese daily lives–an experience sampling study. Dreaming 22, 70–73. Krause-Utz A, Frost R, Winter D, Elzinga BM. Indeed, this is mirrored by associations observed in sleeping cognition because uncontrollable sleep disturbances (e.g., nightmares) are typically more strongly associated with dissociative experiences than controllable sleep mentation such as lucid dreaming (Koffel and Watson, 2009a). , A 2012 review article supports the hypothesis that current or recent trauma may affect an individual's assessment of the more distant past, changing the experience of the past and resulting in dissociative states. No Time Like the Present: Thinking About the Past and the Future Is Related to State Dissociation Among Individuals With High Levels of Psychopathological Symptoms. (1998). Steinberg, M. (1993). Essentially, this theory relates to the idea that many of the behaviours that you may feel uncomfortable about, ashamed of, guilty about, or hate are likely to be the behaviours you unconsciously learned as a child to survive in an environment which was hostile, unpredictable, threatening and unsafe. We tested this model by sampling daydreaming episodes, sleep experience, negative mood (anxiety and depression), and dissociative symptoms of an individual with DDD in an intensive single-case experience-sampling study. However, the existing research has treated daydreaming as a trait or global variable (e.g., daydreaming style or typical frequency) and has not yet examined whether the state of daydreaming is associated with dissociation. Dis. To examine the role of mood as a potential mediator we ran a series of mediation analyses using PROCESS (Hayes, 2012) in which daydreaming variables were entered as the predictor variables, dissociation as the dependent variable, and anxiety and depression as the mediator variables. (2011). J. Exp. , Psychological defense mechanisms belong to Freud's theory of psychoanalysis, not to Janetian psychology. Rev. Fragmented sleep, fragmented mind: the role of sleep in dissociative symptoms. The pairing of signals in each time slot was originally designed to allow an examination of temporal contiguity (by splitting the data into two alternate time-series) over a longer period but the study was curtailed to 40 days due to the participant's new work commitments, so the reduced number of observations meant that this could not be examined. PLoS ONE 9:e91285. Dreaming as one end of a continuum of functioning: implications for research and for the use of dreams in therapy and self-knowledge. All authors conceived of, and designed, the study. doi: 10.1037/a0018298, Mikulincer, M., Babkoff, H., Caspy, T., and Weiss, H. (1990). In keeping with the hourglass model of evaluation (Salkovskis, 1995), further N = 1 outcome studies offer the opportunity to study, in detail, responsivity to suggested phases of treatment, before proceeding onto larger group studies. Psychol. Scores for each item were summed to create an overall score with higher scores indicative of greater dissociative experiences over the past month. (2012). Poerio GL, Totterdell P, Emerson LM, Miles E. Front Psychol. , Misdiagnosis is common among people who display symptoms of dissociative disorders, with an average of seven years to receive proper diagnosis and treatment. Psychol. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2011.08.001. Based on previous research and theory on both the role of sleep and “dream-like” intrusions in the maintenance of dissociation and the potential role of daydreaming in this process, we proposed an initial model (Figure 1) explaining how sleep and daydreaming are linked with mood and dissociative symptoms. This would enable an examination of the relative strength of different directions of influence (e.g., is the effect of sleep on dissociation stronger than the effect of dissociation on sleep?) This suggests that rather than (or in addition to) daydreaming predicting negative “in the moment” feelings, daydreaming is also preceded or caused by negative mood. Klinger, E. (2009). Annu. Sleep quality was a negative predictor of depression (β = −0.17, p = 0.022, B = −0.05, SE = 0.00, 95%CI: −0.01, 0.00) but not of anxiety (β = −0.14, p = 0.115, B = −0.04, SE = 0.01, 95%CI: −0.10, 0.03).